Vertical Reservation and Horizontal Reservation in Appointment

We might have heard about Vertical Reservation and Horizontal Reservation when we were talking about Reservation policy. What does it mean ? How it is followed in recruitment in Govt jobs ? Explained here..

What is Vertical Reservation and Horizontal Reservation ?

There are two types of Reservation are mentioned in Reservation Policy.

1.Vertical Reservation
2. Horizontal Reservation

What is Vertical Reservation ?

The reservations in favour of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes [(under Article 16(4)] may be called vertical reservations.

a) SC
b) ST
c) OBC

The Total percentage of Reservation for the above three categories should not exceed 50% at any point of Time

What is Horizontal Reservation ?

The Reservation in fovour of Ex-servicemen, Person with Disability, Sportsmen, Minorities etc may be called Horizontal reservation.

Horizontal reservations cut across the vertical reservations – what is called interlocking reservations. The percentage of reservation allotted to Horizontal reservation categories should be adjusted against percentage of SC/ST/ OBC and General categories in vertical reservation.

Even after providing for these horizontal reservations, the percentage of reservations in SC /ST and OBC should remain the same. It should not exceed the limit prescribed for these categories.

In Rajesh Kumar Daria Vs. Rajasthan Public Service Commission & Ors. AIR 2007 SC 3127, the Supreme Court explained the law in the following terms;

5. Before examining whether the reservation provision relating to women, had been correctly applied, it will be advantageous to refer to the nature of horizontal reservation and the manner of its application. In Indra Sawhney vs. Union of India [1992 Supp.(3) SCC 217], the principle of horizontal reservation was explained thus (Pr.812) :

“all reservations are not of the same nature. There are two types of reservations, which may, for the sake of convenience, be referred to as ‘vertical reservations’ and ‘horizontal reservations’. The reservations in favour of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes [(under Article 16(4)] may be called vertical reservations whereas reservations in favour of physically handicapped (under clause (1) of Article 16] can be referred to as horizontal reservations.

Horizontal reservations cut across the vertical reservations – what is called interlocking reservations. To be more precise, suppose 3% of the vacancies are reserved in favour of physically handicapped persons; this would be a reservation relatable to clause (1) of Article 16. The persons selected against the quota will be placed in that quota by making necessary adjustments; similarly, if he belongs to open competition (OC) category, he will be placed in that category by making necessary adjustments. Even after providing for these horizontal reservations, the percentage of reservations in favour of backward class of citizens remains – and should remain – the same.”

Read AboutExtended Zone of consideration for SC / ST in Promotion

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